|本期目录/Table of Contents|

跳远全程助跑中步态变化特点及其对助跑速度的影响

《山东体育学院学报》[ISSN:1006-2076/CN:37-1013/G8]

期数:
2019年05期
页码:
0
栏目:
出版日期:
2019-10-30

文章信息/Info

Title:
-
作者:
王国杰章碧玉彭秋艳邹吉玲
北京体育大学竞技体育学院,北京100084
Author(s):
-
关键词:
跳远全程助跑步态变化对称性助跑速度
Keywords:
-
分类号:
G804.6;G823.3
DOI:
-
文献标识码:
A
摘要:
目的:探讨我国高水平跳远运动员助跑过程中步态变化特点及其对助跑速度的影响。方法与内容:采用分段录像解析法对2018年全国田径锦标赛跳远项目决赛男、女前8名运动员全程助跑不同阶段的步长、步频、步速、下肢对称性和分段速度进行研究。结果:1)男子在后程助跑中增速18.9%,步长和步频增幅分别为7.4%和12.4%;女子后程增速12%,步长和步频增幅分别为8.3%和14.5%;56.25%的运动员在前程助跑中表现出步长倾向,87.5%的运动员在后程助跑中表现出步频倾向;2)非起跳腿在步频和步速上更具优势,起跳腿的优势仅体现在步长上,非对称性并未对造成双侧下肢在步长、步频和步速上的显著差异,并且与踏板准确性和助跑速度无相关关系;3)步态变化和下肢非对称性并未造成助跑水平速度上的损失,运动员均在板前10~0 m和最后2步内达到最大速度。结论:1)步频是跳远项目增速的主导变量,但是在不同助跑阶段又具有不同的表现形式。在前程助跑逐渐增加步长提高速度,在后程助跑中保持或略有增加步长的前提下,逐渐加快步频以达到最大速度是全程助跑的节奏模式;2)教练员在助跑训练中应考虑全程助跑的步态变化特点,并根据运动员前、后程助跑步数,在助跑训练中给与相应的提示,前程助跑中注意加大蹬地力量加大步长,后程助跑中应注意加快动作速率,强调神经系统的兴奋性,加快步频。
Abstract:
-

参考文献/References

\[1\]Salo AIT,Bezodis IN,Batterham AM, et al. Elite Sprinting: Are Athletes Individually Step-frequency Or Step-length Reliant?\[J\]. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2011, 43(6): 1055-1062. \[2\]Ito A,Ishikawa M,Isolehto J, et al. Changes in the Step Width, Step Length, and Step Frequency of the World's Top Sprinters During the 100 Metres\[J\]. New Studies in Athletics, 2006, 21(3): 35-39. \[3\]Mero APV. Effects of Supramaximal Velocity on Biomechanical Variables in Sprinting\[J\]. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1985, 1(3): 240-252. \[4\]Ae M.-Ito-A.-&-Suzuki-M.. The men’s 100 meters. Scientific Research Project at the III World Championship in Athletics, Tokyo \[J\]. New Studies in Athletics, 1991, 25(7): 47-52. \[5\]Morin J,Bourdin M,Edouard P, et al. Mechanical Determinants of 100-m Sprint Running Performance.\[J\]. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2012, 112(11): 3921-3930. \[6\]Mann R,Herman J. Kinematic Analysis of Olympic Sprint Performance: Men's 200 Meters\[J\]. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1985, 1(2): 151-162. \[7\]Mero A,Komi PV. Effects of Supramaximal Velocity on Biomechanical Variables in Sprinting\[J\]. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1985, 1(3): 240-252. \[8\]Jp H,Rn M,Pj. M. Interaction of Step Length and Step Rate During Sprint Running\[J\]. Medecine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2004, 36(2): 261-271. \[9\]Brughelli M,Cronin J,Chaouachi A. Effects of Running Velocity on Running Kinetics and Kinematics\[J\]. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2011, 25(4): 933-939. \[10\]冯树勇. 中国高水平跳远运动员训练内容体系的研究\[M\]. 北京: 北京体育大学出版社, 2001. \[11\]Hay JG. Citius, Altius, Longius (faster, Higher, Longer): the Biomechanics of Jumping for Distance\[J\]. Journal of Biomechanics, 1993, 26(1): 7-21. \[12\]Hay JG,Miller JA,Canterna RW. The Techniques of Elite Male Long Jumpers\[J\]. Journal of Biomechanics, 1986, 19(10): 855-866. \[13\]Hay JG. Techniques Used in the Transition From Approach to Takeoff in the Long Jump\[J\]. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1985, 1(2): 174-184. \[14\]苑廷刚,黄乐,王国杰,等. 我国现役优秀男子跳远运动员关键运动技术特征研究\[J\]. 中国体育科技, 2015, 51(4): 28-35. \[15\]Lees A,Graham-smith P,Fowler N. A Biomechanical Analysis of the Last Stride, Touchdown, and Takeoff Characteristics of the Men's Long Jump\[J\]. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1994, 10(1): 61-78. \[16\]Hay JG. The Biomechanics of the Long Jump.\[J\]. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 1986, 14(1): 401. \[17\]Lee DN,Lishman JR,Thomson JA. Regulation of Gait in Long Jumping\[J\]. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1982, 8(3): 448-459. \[18\]Bradshaw EJ,Aisbett B. Visual Guidance During Competition Performance and Run-through Training in Long Jumping.\[J\]. Sports Biomech, 2006, 5(1): 1-14. \[19\]Theodorou A,Emmanouil S,Sotiris P, et al. Stride Length Regulation at the Approach Phase of Long Jump in Visually Impaired (f12 Class) Athletes\[J\]. International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: Conference Proceedings Archive, 2012, 30(期缺失): 33-36. \[20\]Hay JG. Approach Strategies in the Long Jump\[J\]. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1988, 4(2): 114-129. \[21\]Ma S,Fx L,K. D. Expertise and the Regulation of Gait in the Approach Phase of the Long Jump\[J\]. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1997, 15(6): 597-605. \[22\]Hay JG. Evaluating the Approach in the Horizontal Jumps\[J\]. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1988, 4(4): 372-392. \[23\]Berg W,Greer N. A Kinematic Profile of the Approach Run of Novice Long Jumpers\[J\]. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1995, 11(2): 142-162. \[24\]王国杰,陈志婷,郑富强,等. 世界优秀男子跳远运动员起跳技术特征及其对中国男子跳远技术发展的启示——以第15届北京世界田径锦标赛为例\[J\]. 中国体育科技, 2016, 52(5): 112-119. \[25\]Nohara JGHAH. Techniques Used By Elite Long Jumpers in Preparation for Takeoff\[J\]. Journal of Biomechanics, 1990, 23(3): 229-239. \[26\]Exell,Gittoes,Irwin, et al. Gait Asymmetry: Composite Scores for Mechanical Analyses of Sprint Running.\[J\]. Journal of Biomechanics, 2012, 45(6): 1108-1111. \[27\]Theodorou as1 PVETAPPGSA. Step Characteristic Interaction and Asymmetry During the Approach Phase in Long Jump.\[J\]. J Sports Sci, 2017, 35(4): 346-354. \[28\]Zifchock RA,Davis I. Non-consecutive Versus Consecutive Footstrikes as an Equivalent Method of Assessing Gait Asymmetry.\[J\]. Journal of Biomechanics, 2008, 41(1): 226-230. \[29\]Kuitunen S,Komi PV. Knee and Ankle Joint Stiffness in Sprint Running\[J\]. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2002, 34(1): 166-173. \[30\]Pg W,Db S,Mj B, et al. Faster Top Running Speeds Are Achieved with Greater Ground Forces Not More Rapid Leg Movements.\[J\]. Journal of Applied Physiology, 2000, 89(5): 1991-1999. \[31\]B Young-Warren. Transfer of Strength and Power Training to sports performance\[J\]. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 2006, 1(2): 74-83. \[32\]卓建南,何秋华. 中外优秀跳远运动员助跑速度比较与分析\[J\]. 广州体育学院学报, 2004, 24(2): 77-78. \[33\]邓卫权. 跳远运动员水平速度变化对远度影响的探讨\[J\]. 中国体育科技, 2002, 38(5): 47-49.

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
-
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01